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Supercapacitor is a large capacitance capacitor with a capacity of up to thousands of Faraday. According to the principle of the capacitor, the capacitance depends on the distance between the electrodes and the surface area of the electrodes, in order to obtain such a large capacitance, to minimize the distance between the super capacitor electrodes and increase the surface area of the electrodes, the principle of double electric layer and the porous electrode of activated carbon are adopted.
When a supercapacitor is applied voltage on the two electrodes of a capacitor, the dielectric layer of the super capacitor produces a charge opposite to the charge polarity of the electrode and is bound to the dielectric interface to form a two-electrode of the actual capacitor. Obviously, the distance of two electrodes is very small, only a few nm. At the same time, the porous electrode of activated carbon can obtain great surface area of electrode and can reach 200m 2. Thus the super capacitor of this structure has great capacitance and can store very large electrostatic energy. In the case of energy storage, this characteristic of supercapacitors is between conventional capacitors and batteries. When the electric potential between two electrodes is lower than the redox electrode potential of electrolyte, the charge on the electrolyte interface does not deviate from the electrolyte, the super capacitor is in normal working condition (usually under 3V), if the capacitor's two-terminal voltage exceeds the redox electrode potential of the electrolyte, then the electrolyte will decompose and be in an abnormal state. With the discharge of the supercapacitor, the charge on the positive and negative plate is discharged by the external circuit, and the charge response on the electrolyte interface is reduced. It can be seen that the charge-discharge process of supercapacitor is always a physical process, no chemical reaction, so the performance is stable, and the use of chemical reaction of the battery is different.